Blog: Matthew Bugher
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November 7, 2014
Senior Myanmar Officials Implicated in War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity
Myanmar must decide how to address legacy of abuses by military
November 6, 2014, Yangon, Myanmar—A four-year investigation by the International Human Rights Clinic at Harvard Law School has found that the Myanmar military committed war crimes and crimes against humanity in 2005-2006, and that perpetrators, including the current Home Affairs Minister, continue to serve at the highest levels of the country’s government.
Today, the Clinic released a legal memorandum, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity in Eastern Myanmar, which examines the conduct of the Myanmar military during an offensive that cleared and forcibly relocated civilian populations from conflict zones in eastern Myanmar. Through more than 150 interviews with eyewitnesses, the Clinic documented how soldiers fired mortars at villages; opened fire on fleeing villagers; destroyed homes, crops, and food stores; laid landmines in civilian locations; forced civilians to work and porter; and captured and executed civilians.
“These are serious allegations that demand a determined, good faith response by the Myanmar government and military,” said Tyler Giannini, Co-Director of the Clinic. “The abuses perpetrated by the military have been too widespread, too persistent, and too grave to be ignored.”
The memorandum specifically implicates three commanders in international crimes as defined by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Major General Ko Ko, the current Home Affairs Minister; Brigadier General Khin Zaw Oo, the current commander of the Bureau of Special Operations 4; and General Maung Maung Aye, most recently the Naypyidaw Regional Commander. All three received promotions after the offensive.
As part of its investigation, the Clinic compiled more than 1,000 pages of draft affidavits from interviews with individuals in Myanmar and along the Thailand-Myanmar border, including villagers, village leaders, and former Myanmar Army soldiers. Additionally, the Clinic collected photographic evidence and solicited expert declarations from four individuals with knowledge relevant to the offensive and the Myanmar military’s structure and policies.
“In interview after interview, villagers described a pattern of military abuse—stories that have been notably absent from the national conversation about reform,” said Matthew Bugher, Global Justice Fellow at Harvard Law School and a principal researcher on the Clinic’s memorandum. “It is critical that these voices are heard, especially since a similar pattern appears to be playing out today in Kachin State and northern Shan State.”
The Clinic’s evidence is sufficient to satisfy the standard required for the issuance of an arrest warrant against these commanders by the International Criminal Court. Under international criminal law, these commanders could be held accountable for their own actions as well as for crimes committed by soldiers under their effective command and control. Although the Clinic’s memorandum uses the framework of the Rome Statute, international justice is not the only means of addressing past abuses.
“Myanmar faces profound and difficult decisions as it transitions away from military rule and towards meaningful reform,” said Susan Farbstein, Co-Director of the Clinic. “Ultimately, it is the people of Myanmar who must decide how to address the legacy of military abuse.”
The International Human Rights Clinic at Harvard Law School has been working on human rights in Myanmar since 2004 and has examined international crimes in the country since 2008. Among its publications, the Clinic released Crimes in Burma in May 2009 and Policy Memorandum: Preventing Indiscriminate Attacks and Wilful Killings of Civilians by the Myanmar Military in March 2014.
For more information:
Matthew Bugher, Global Justice Fellow at Harvard Law School, in Yangon:
firstname.lastname@example.org or +95 094 0159 6412
Tyler Giannini, Co-Director, International Human Rights Clinic, Harvard Law School, in the United States:
email@example.com or 617-496-7368
Cara Solomon, Communications Manager, Human Rights Program, Harvard Law School, in the United States:
firstname.lastname@example.org or 617-495-9214
July 31, 2014
Posted by Mindy Roseman
The Human Rights Program at Harvard Law School is pleased to announce the establishment of the Global Justice Fellowship (GJF) with the generous support of the Planethood Foundation. The fellowship supports scholars, advocates, and practitioners with a demonstrated background in international justice and the rule of law. Of most interest are those whose work concerns ongoing human rights issues, especially those touching on egregious violations, including genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes.
Matthew Bugher, JD ‘09, is the inaugural Global Justice Fellow. Over the coming year, Matthew will work to combat state-sponsored violence and persecution in Myanmar and Zimbabwe. More specifically, he will contribute to the Clinic’s ongoing advocacy relating to military policy reform in Myanmar; work with partners on new initiatives to promote accountability for gross human rights violations; and support local activists in their efforts to document abuses.
Earlier in the summer, the Human Rights Program made several other fellowship awards. With the support of a Henigson Human Rights Fellowship, Maryum Jordan, J.D. ’14, will work in Peru with EarthRights International; Lindsay Henson, J.D. ’14, will work in South Africa with Lawyers Against Abuse; Sarah Wheaton, J.D. ’14, will work in Egypt with St. Andrew’s Resettlement Legal Aid Project; and Anjali Mohan, J.D. ’14, will work in Myanmar with Justice Base.
HRP also awarded two Satter Human Rights fellowships: to James Tager, J.D. ’13, who will work with the International Commission of Jurists in Thailand, and to Jason Gelbort, J.D. ’13, who will work with Public International Law & Policy Group in Myanmar.
NOTE: HRP recently re-opened the application process for one more Satter Fellowship.
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